**Abstract:**A novel soliton equation system (a set of simultaneous algebraic vector equations) gives rise to the Maxwell equations in vacuum. It is evident that one must distinguish between the electromotive forces and the electrostatic forces. This, together with the equation system, provides the mathematical framework in which to define a Constructive Electromagnetic Quantum Theory in $\mathbb{C}^3$. This new theory provides an explanation of all quantum phenomena, defines particles as electromagnetic solitons and identifies—most significantly—that mass and all forces are manifestations of the electromagnetic phenomenon. As an application, the theory enabled the elucidation to identify the laws that govern the atomic mass relation of the elements and their isotopes using an onion shell nucleon model. This onion shell model allows me to predict energy production by cold isotope transmutation within the element’s crystal structure; using zinc such a transmutation produces one eighth of the energy released by the hydrogen to helium fusion reaction. Furthermore, it also provides the fundamental understanding required to calculate the “mass gap” as $\Delta_0 \approx 3.683 \times 10^{-66}$ joules.

**Key Words:** Constructive Electromagnetic Quantum Theory, Electromagnetic Solitons, Quantised Electromagnetism, Origin of Mass, Atomic Onion Shell Model, Nucleon Packing, Isotope Transmutation, Unification of the Forces, Mass Gap

**Posted in:** 2 Bimodal Waves in Vacuum

**Article Reference:** 1882

**Article Status:** Published in Proceedings

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