2023-09-22 | A novel soliton equation system leads to a constructive electromagnetic quantum theory that describes the origin of mass and unifies the forces.
A. Vrba
A novel soliton equation system (a set of simultaneous algebraic vector equations) gives rise to the Maxwell equations in vacuum. It is evident that one must distinguish between the electromotive forces and the electrostatic forces. This, together with the equation system, provides the mathematical framework in which to define a Constructive Electromagnetic Quantum Theory in $\mathbb{C}^3$. This new theory provides an explanation of all quantum phenomena, defines particles as electromagnetic solitons and identifies---most significantly---that mass and all forces are manifestations of the electromagnetic phenomenon. As an application, the theory enabled the elucidation to identify the laws that govern the atomic mass relation of the elements and their isotopes using an onion shell nucleon model. This onion shell model allows me to predict energy production by cold isotope transmutation within the element's crystal structure; using zinc such a transmutation produces one eighth of the energy released by the hydrogen to helium fusion reaction. Furthermore, it also provides the fundamental understanding required to calculate the "mass gap" as $\Delta_0 \approx 3.683 \times 10^{-66}$ joules. A small caddition electromagnetic theory and together with a novel mathematical approach provides the framework that:
• Describes particles as electromagnetic solitons,
• identifies that mass is a manifestation of the electromagnetic phenomenon,
• shows the origin of and unifies the four forces,
• allowed the developm Full abstract ... BibLaTeX@Online{Vrba-2023-1882, |
2023-02-11 | The fundamental theorems of Maxwellian dynamics explain entanglement as a nilpotent superposition.
A. L. Vrba
The question whether all phenomena are of electromagnetic origin has not been answered since Poincaré voiced it. To work towards an answer we adopt a Poincaréan ontology (everything is of electromagnetic origin) and develop Maxwellian dynamics (interactions as nilpotent electromagnetic superpositions) and put it to test experience. For this purpose I present a novel set of three simultaneous vector cross-product equations that define generically the Maxwell equations in vacuum, but with expanded analytical capabilities, e.g. solitons as 1-D, 2-D and 3-dimensional waves; the latter two propagate on closed curves in space. Here we analyse 1-dimensional solitons (photons) and show that entanglement emerges from the conservation of the nilpotent state required for a two-photon production in atomic cascades. From the insight obtained, I propose adapting the EPR experiment by introducing asymmetrical polarisation in the first (and earlier) Alice’s station. Bob in the second (and later) station uses a symmetrical polariser. The theorems presented here predict that Bob observes an asymmetrical polarisation distribution. Should this prediction be proven experimentally then that would set an inflection point in the ontology of physics The theorems of Maxwellian dynamics are based in the ontology that everything in the universe is of electromagnetic origin. Here a new explanation to the EPR paradox is presented supported by the fundamental Maxwellian theorems. Full abstract ... BibLaTeX@Article{Vrba-2023-1805, |
2023-02-02 | Can Alice influence Bob? Yes she can, Maxwell demands it and Noether predicted it; A nonlocal Maxwellian explanation of the EPR experiment.
A. L. Vrba
We construct a simple EPR experiment: A source of circular polarised entangled photon pairs are sent to Alice and Bob. Alice intersects her beam with an asymmetrical 75:25 polariser, constructed from a cascade of three polarisers, but does no observation. Question: Are the photons Bob receives skewed 25:75? Using a nonlocal classical construct demonstrates from Maxwellian principles a universal conservation phenomenon, as predicted by Noether's Theorem. The analysis demonstrates the physics underlying the Bell inequality, and predicts the outcome that Bob's observations are skewed 25:75 which contrasts with the expected 50:50 distribution that quantum mechanics predict. A new EPR experiment that uses asymmetrical polarisation gives a nonlocal Maxwellian explanation of the EPR paradox Full abstract ... BibLaTeX@Online{Vrba-2023-1767, |
2023-01-27 | Can Alice influence Bob? A new EPR experiment without correlation measurements.
A. L. Vrba
The question: Is reality governed by non-causal probabilistic quantum mechanics, or by a strict classical causal relationship, seems to be settled in favour of probabilistic quantum principles. Every Bell-type experiment reports to refute the strict causal relationship, or hidden variables explanation. Here I propose an EPR experiment where Alice does no observation, but uses a 75:25 biased polariser. This new experiment would decide if spooky action at a distance is attributed to a "collapse of a wavefunction" or a manifestation from an unknown classical "preservation phenomenon" as a universal hidden variable. If it is the later quantum mechanics should then be interpreted as probabilistic but causal. Full abstract ... BibLaTeX@Article{Vrba-2023-1751, |
2022-12-09 | General Maxwellian Dynamics defined by a novel equation set. Particles are Maxwellian solitons.
A. L. Vrba
Waves of all types are described mathematically using partial differential equations. Here, departing from this tradition, I describe waves using a novel system of three simultaneous vector algebraic equations: $\mathscr{M}(\vb u,\vb a,\vb r) = \big\{\vb r= \vb u \cross \vb a;\,$ $\vb u= (\vb a \cross \vb r)/\norm{\vb a}^2;\,$ $\vb a = (\vb r \cross \vb u)/\norm{\vb u}^2 \big\}$ which define Maxwellian wave dynamics for any fields $\vb a$ and $\vb b$ that support wave action and $\vb u$ a velocity vector. That is $\mathscr{M}(\vb u,\vb B,\vb E)$ is a novel reformulation of the Maxwell equations in vacuum. Furthermore, the expressions for the permittivity $\epsilon_0$, permeability $\mu_0$ and the magnetic flux density $\vb B$, in terms of action $h$, elementary charge $e$ and speed of light $c$, are obtained by manipulating $\mathscr{M}$ with the assumption that an EM-wave has action and transports charge. As an application of $\mathscr{M}(\vb u,\vb B,\vb E)$ I show that three dimensional spherical EM-wave structures do exist, in theory at least. They are stationary with finite dimensionality and could provide the basis for describing EM-solitons, which in turn could be used to describe many natural phenomena, including ball lightning among others. Instead of working with fields I reformulate $\mathscr{M}$ in terms of flux vectors $\vb A$ and $\vb R$. Using $\mathscr{M}(\vb u, \vb A, \vb R)$ I describe rotary waves (propeller-like instead of ripples on a pond) and show that rotary waves could be the basis to describe particles, physically, as solitons in terms of Maxwellian wave dynamics. General Maxwellian Dynamics, defined by the simultaneous equations $\vb r= \vb u \cross \vb a;\,$ $\vb u= (\vb a \cross \vb r)/\norm{\vb a}^2;\,$ $\vb a = (\vb r \cross \vb u)/\norm{\vb u}^2$, describes novel rotary waves. These are Maxwellian solitons that could model particles physically. Full abstract ... BibLaTeX@Article{Vrba-2022-1673, |
2022-10-05 | A mathematical derivation of the Maxwell equations
A. L. Vrba
Waves of all types are described mathematically using partial differential equations. Here, departing from this tradition, I describe waves using a novel system of three simultaneous vector algebraic equations. These equations when set in the electromagnetic domain are a novel mathematical reformulation of the Maxwell equations: $\mathscr{M}(\vb u,\vb B,\vb E) = \big\{\vb E= \vb u \cross \vb B;\,$ $\vb u= (\vb B \cross \vb E)/\norm{\vb B}^2;\,$ $\vb B = (\vb E \cross \vb u)/\norm{\vb u}^2 \big\}$ where $\vb u$ is a velocity vector. Furthermore, the expressions for the permittivity $\epsilon_0$, permeability $\mu_0$ and the magnetic flux density $\vb B$ are obtained by manipulating $\mathscr{M}.$ As an application of $\mathscr{M}$ I show that three dimensional spherical EM-wave structures do exist, in theory at least. They are stationary with finite dimensionality and could provide the basis for describing EM-solitons, which in turn could be used to describe many natural phenomena, including ball lightning among others. Waves are described by a novel system of three simultaneous vector equations. These equations when set in the electromagnetic domain are a reformulation of the Maxwell equations, and could describe 3D-EM wave structures, e.g. ball-lightning. Full abstract ... BibLaTeX@Article{Vrba-2022-787, |