2023-09-22 | A novel soliton equation system leads to a constructive electromagnetic quantum theory that describes the origin of mass and unifies the forces.
A. Vrba
A novel soliton equation system (a set of simultaneous algebraic vector equations) gives rise to the Maxwell equations in vacuum. It is evident that one must distinguish between the electromotive forces and the electrostatic forces. This, together with the equation system, provides the mathematical framework in which to define a Constructive Electromagnetic Quantum Theory in $\mathbb{C}^3$. This new theory provides an explanation of all quantum phenomena, defines particles as electromagnetic solitons and identifies---most significantly---that mass and all forces are manifestations of the electromagnetic phenomenon. As an application, the theory enabled the elucidation to identify the laws that govern the atomic mass relation of the elements and their isotopes using an onion shell nucleon model. This onion shell model allows me to predict energy production by cold isotope transmutation within the element's crystal structure; using zinc such a transmutation produces one eighth of the energy released by the hydrogen to helium fusion reaction. Furthermore, it also provides the fundamental understanding required to calculate the "mass gap" as $\Delta_0 \approx 3.683 \times 10^{-66}$ joules. A small caddition electromagnetic theory and together with a novel mathematical approach provides the framework that:
• Describes particles as electromagnetic solitons,
• identifies that mass is a manifestation of the electromagnetic phenomenon,
• shows the origin of and unifies the four forces,
• allowed the developm Full abstract ... BibLaTeX@Online{Vrba-2023-1882, |
2023-02-11 | The fundamental theorems of Maxwellian dynamics explain entanglement as a nilpotent superposition.
A. L. Vrba
The question whether all phenomena are of electromagnetic origin has not been answered since Poincaré voiced it. To work towards an answer we adopt a Poincaréan ontology (everything is of electromagnetic origin) and develop Maxwellian dynamics (interactions as nilpotent electromagnetic superpositions) and put it to test experience. For this purpose I present a novel set of three simultaneous vector cross-product equations that define generically the Maxwell equations in vacuum, but with expanded analytical capabilities, e.g. solitons as 1-D, 2-D and 3-dimensional waves; the latter two propagate on closed curves in space. Here we analyse 1-dimensional solitons (photons) and show that entanglement emerges from the conservation of the nilpotent state required for a two-photon production in atomic cascades. From the insight obtained, I propose adapting the EPR experiment by introducing asymmetrical polarisation in the first (and earlier) Alice’s station. Bob in the second (and later) station uses a symmetrical polariser. The theorems presented here predict that Bob observes an asymmetrical polarisation distribution. Should this prediction be proven experimentally then that would set an inflection point in the ontology of physics The theorems of Maxwellian dynamics are based in the ontology that everything in the universe is of electromagnetic origin. Here a new explanation to the EPR paradox is presented supported by the fundamental Maxwellian theorems. Full abstract ... BibLaTeX@Article{Vrba-2023-1805, |
2023-02-02 | Can Alice influence Bob? Yes she can, Maxwell demands it and Noether predicted it; A nonlocal Maxwellian explanation of the EPR experiment.
A. L. Vrba
We construct a simple EPR experiment: A source of circular polarised entangled photon pairs are sent to Alice and Bob. Alice intersects her beam with an asymmetrical 75:25 polariser, constructed from a cascade of three polarisers, but does no observation. Question: Are the photons Bob receives skewed 25:75? Using a nonlocal classical construct demonstrates from Maxwellian principles a universal conservation phenomenon, as predicted by Noether's Theorem. The analysis demonstrates the physics underlying the Bell inequality, and predicts the outcome that Bob's observations are skewed 25:75 which contrasts with the expected 50:50 distribution that quantum mechanics predict. A new EPR experiment that uses asymmetrical polarisation gives a nonlocal Maxwellian explanation of the EPR paradox Full abstract ... BibLaTeX@Online{Vrba-2023-1767, |
2023-01-27 | Can Alice influence Bob? A new EPR experiment without correlation measurements.
A. L. Vrba
The question: Is reality governed by non-causal probabilistic quantum mechanics, or by a strict classical causal relationship, seems to be settled in favour of probabilistic quantum principles. Every Bell-type experiment reports to refute the strict causal relationship, or hidden variables explanation. Here I propose an EPR experiment where Alice does no observation, but uses a 75:25 biased polariser. This new experiment would decide if spooky action at a distance is attributed to a "collapse of a wavefunction" or a manifestation from an unknown classical "preservation phenomenon" as a universal hidden variable. If it is the later quantum mechanics should then be interpreted as probabilistic but causal. Full abstract ... BibLaTeX@Article{Vrba-2023-1751, |
2022-12-09 | General Maxwellian Dynamics defined by a novel equation set. Particles are Maxwellian solitons.
A. L. Vrba
Waves of all types are described mathematically using partial differential equations. Here, departing from this tradition, I describe waves using a novel system of three simultaneous vector algebraic equations: $\mathscr{M}(\vb u,\vb a,\vb r) = \big\{\vb r= \vb u \cross \vb a;\,$ $\vb u= (\vb a \cross \vb r)/\norm{\vb a}^2;\,$ $\vb a = (\vb r \cross \vb u)/\norm{\vb u}^2 \big\}$ which define Maxwellian wave dynamics for any fields $\vb a$ and $\vb b$ that support wave action and $\vb u$ a velocity vector. That is $\mathscr{M}(\vb u,\vb B,\vb E)$ is a novel reformulation of the Maxwell equations in vacuum. Furthermore, the expressions for the permittivity $\epsilon_0$, permeability $\mu_0$ and the magnetic flux density $\vb B$, in terms of action $h$, elementary charge $e$ and speed of light $c$, are obtained by manipulating $\mathscr{M}$ with the assumption that an EM-wave has action and transports charge. As an application of $\mathscr{M}(\vb u,\vb B,\vb E)$ I show that three dimensional spherical EM-wave structures do exist, in theory at least. They are stationary with finite dimensionality and could provide the basis for describing EM-solitons, which in turn could be used to describe many natural phenomena, including ball lightning among others. Instead of working with fields I reformulate $\mathscr{M}$ in terms of flux vectors $\vb A$ and $\vb R$. Using $\mathscr{M}(\vb u, \vb A, \vb R)$ I describe rotary waves (propeller-like instead of ripples on a pond) and show that rotary waves could be the basis to describe particles, physically, as solitons in terms of Maxwellian wave dynamics. General Maxwellian Dynamics, defined by the simultaneous equations $\vb r= \vb u \cross \vb a;\,$ $\vb u= (\vb a \cross \vb r)/\norm{\vb a}^2;\,$ $\vb a = (\vb r \cross \vb u)/\norm{\vb u}^2$, describes novel rotary waves. These are Maxwellian solitons that could model particles physically. Full abstract ... BibLaTeX@Article{Vrba-2022-1673, |
2022-12-03 | Electricity is not what we think it is.
A. L. Vrba
The mid 19th century natural philosophers pondered about the nature of the electric phenomenon, and used the term electric fluid. After the electron was discovered by Thomson, Drude shortly afterwards presented his theory of electric current as a drift of electrons; that theory, albeit with modifications, still holds today. Here I present a thought experiment that challenges Drude's theory. A thought experiment that challenges Drude's theory that electrons are the charge carririers for electric current. Full abstract ... BibLaTeX@Article{Vrba-2022-1661, |
2022-11-12 | Quantum nonlocality.
N. Sotina
Experiments with entangled particles and various interpretations of the experiments are usually combined under a common term 'Quantum Nonlocality'. This work analyzes the term of ‘nonlocality’ and gives brief overview of the known interpretations of the entangled particles paradox. A model of the physical vacuum as a superfluid is proposed. Structures forming in the superfluid physical vacuum that surround a particle can give explanation to the quantum entanglement phenomenon. This work analyzes the term of ‘nonlocality’ and gives overview of interpretations of the entangled particles paradox. A model of the physical vacuum as a superfluid is proposed. Structures forming in the superfluid physical vacuum that surround a particle can give explanation to the quantum entanglement phenomenon. Full abstract ... BibLaTeX@Article{Sotina-2022-1518, |
2022-10-19 | Variable Speed of Light in 3-dimensional Euclidean Space
N. Sotina and N. Lvov
The speed of light according to special relativity has the same constant value c with respect to a distant star, as it has with respect to the Earth or with respect to a moving source. Special relativity explains this paradox through kinematics. It proposes that space is 4-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean and, hence, the classical law of velocity addition is not applicable. In this work we show that experimental observations of the constancy of the speed of light can be explained remaining in the framework the three-dimensional Euclidean space model and the classical law of velocity addition. But in this case, we have to accept the existence of some ‘hidden’ dynamics that leads to equalization of the velocity of light (photon) to value c within the same frame. We show mathematically that the transverse Doppler Effect can be used in support of such hypothesis (note, that the transverse Doppler Effect is still considered the main arguments in favor of the relativistic kinematics). Astronomical observations of binary stars also support the hypothesis that the speed of light changes within a physical frame of reference. By accepting the existence of some ‘hidden’ dynamics, we show that experimental observations of the constancy of the speed of light can be explained in three-dimensional Euclidean space and the classical law of velocity addition. A mathematical analysis of the transverse Doppler Effect supports this hypothesis. Full abstract ... BibLaTeX@Article{Sotina-2022-1303, |
2022-10-05 | A mathematical derivation of the Maxwell equations
A. L. Vrba
Waves of all types are described mathematically using partial differential equations. Here, departing from this tradition, I describe waves using a novel system of three simultaneous vector algebraic equations. These equations when set in the electromagnetic domain are a novel mathematical reformulation of the Maxwell equations: $\mathscr{M}(\vb u,\vb B,\vb E) = \big\{\vb E= \vb u \cross \vb B;\,$ $\vb u= (\vb B \cross \vb E)/\norm{\vb B}^2;\,$ $\vb B = (\vb E \cross \vb u)/\norm{\vb u}^2 \big\}$ where $\vb u$ is a velocity vector. Furthermore, the expressions for the permittivity $\epsilon_0$, permeability $\mu_0$ and the magnetic flux density $\vb B$ are obtained by manipulating $\mathscr{M}.$ As an application of $\mathscr{M}$ I show that three dimensional spherical EM-wave structures do exist, in theory at least. They are stationary with finite dimensionality and could provide the basis for describing EM-solitons, which in turn could be used to describe many natural phenomena, including ball lightning among others. Waves are described by a novel system of three simultaneous vector equations. These equations when set in the electromagnetic domain are a reformulation of the Maxwell equations, and could describe 3D-EM wave structures, e.g. ball-lightning. Full abstract ... BibLaTeX@Article{Vrba-2022-787, |
2022-10-01 | A new n-dimensional associative and commutative, but non-distributive, algebra
A. L. Vrba
This paper introduces a new n-dimensional associative and commutative, but non-distributive, algebra. We define the spatial operator $_sj$ that manipulates numbers in a multidimensional number-space (hyper-complex) according to the spatial angle $_s\theta$, a tuple of angles $_s(\theta_1, \theta_2, \ldots)$. The spatial number, which is expressed symbolically as $\textrm{e}^{_s\theta}$, belongs to both the additive and multiplicative Abelian groups. They are non-distributive in multiplication with respect to addition, thus forming a non-distributive ring. Spatial numbers could have applications in vector algebra allowing the algebraic product of two vector quantities. Furthermore, they could be of interest in physics, and towards that purpose, I present a novel multi-dimensional solution of the wave equation that describes a spherical wave object whose centre propagates at a velocity $c$ in a vector space. Introducing n-dimensional numbers that form an associative and commutative,
but non-distributive, algebra. They could find application in defining multidensional wave structures. Full abstract ... BibLaTeX@Online{Vrba-2022-987, |