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The Maxwell equation and the derived d ‘Alembert wave equation cannot provide the answers to the above questions. We require a velocity vector in the Maxwell formulations. The talk presents the proof that the simultaneous vector crossproduct equations.

** { ** ** E ** = ** u ** × ** B; ** ** ** **u **= (**B**×**E**)/∥**B**∥^2; **B**= ( **E**×**u**)/∥**u**∥^2**}** — (1)

are a powerful reformulation of the Maxwell equations in vacuum, if ** u ** , ** B ** and **E** are functions of time only, therefore (1) also describes EM-waves in 1D (radio waves and photons), 2D and 3-dimensions (particles). The figure sketches a three dimensional wave, here we note that **E** is always radiant and **B** and **u** tangential.

On the premise that equation set (1) also describes wave action (here electric action) it must follow that a purely mathematical derivation for ϵ _0 and μ_0,in terms of *e *and *h*, should emerges from (1), indeed it is so and is demonstrated. Leveraging (1) to describe flux-waves requires the equivalent expression s for ϵ_f and μ_f, and after deriving these the Planck energy equivalence *E=hf* emerges from (1). The solutions to (1) set in flux are easily quantifiable; for the 3D-wave the following are identifiable: up/down, spin on two axes, charge polarity, and path closure 2 *nπ, *with *n* an integer. The proposed description for particles is congruent to the Bohm ˗de Broglie interpretation of quantum mechanics and a nonlocal hidden variable; this is discussed too.

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